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Chateaux find mildew treatments a “do,” but environmental groups find them a “don’t”
Bordeaux escaped a wine crisis, but lobbyists are still concerned about mildew treatment usage.
There's been a lot of talk about natural and organic wines lately, and for good reason. the Bordeaux wine region saw unusually wet weather conditions, which could cause the ground to be too soft for normal treatment-spraying tractors. As a result, seven chateaux applied for the permission to use helicopters to spray their vines with anti-mildew and anti-oïdium (powdery mildew) treatments.
According to Decanter.com, permission was granted to the wineries, but improved weather conditions allowed the chateaux to use normal tractor methods. Hugues Laydeker of Domaine de Chavelier told Decanter.com, “We were delighted to be able to use tractors and not the helicopters when the weather improved.”
Even though the chateaux will be using their usual procedures, the French Green Party members are protesting, saying that the use of helicopters would be illegal due to a 2010 environmental law. Bordeaux’s local government rejected the party’s claim with a press release that says short-term and limited helicopter use was allowed in exceptional weather circumstances.
A few Bordeaux chateaux limit their use of fungicides, but rely on them for weather circumstances like these, which could cause mildew to completely consume the grapes. But Future Generations, a French lobby group, reports that France’s vineyards make up about 20 percent of France’s chemical treatment use.
Luckily, the change in weather has nulled this entire situation. But in future years, governments and lobbying groups are going to have to compromise the demands of the vineyards with environmental concerns.
For La Dolce Vita Fellini won the Palme d'Or additionally, he was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, and won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. He received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement at the 65th Academy Awards in Los Angeles. His other well-known films include La Strada (1954), Nights of Cabiria (1957), Juliet of the Spirits (1967), the "Toby Dammit" segment of Spirits of the Dead (1968), Fellini Satyricon (1969), Roma (1972), Amarcord (1973), and Fellini's Casanova (1976). Fellini was ranked 2nd in the directors' poll and 7th in the critics' poll in Sight & Sound's 2002 list of the greatest directors of all time.
How it worked
The advisers devised the structure and decided the price at which the jet should be leased between the various companies in the chain. Appleby staff set up a Manx company and provided a director, and EY arranged the VAT registration and secured approval for the scheme from customs. This arrangement is not unlawful.
The jet was owned by a BVI company called Stealth Aviation Ltd. At a cost of €140,000 a month, it leased the plane to a specially created Isle of Man company, Stealth (IOM) Ltd, incorporated in January 2013.
Stealth (IOM) leased the plane to a private jet operator in England, at a slightly higher price. This margin allowed the Isle of Man company to turn a profit and therefore claim to be “in business”.
Based at Farnborough, the jet operator is a genuine business that services and charters private jets. It was paid a fee to look after Hamilton’s plane, provide pilots and crew, and do repairs and maintenance.
The operator then signed further rental agreements with Hamilton directly, and with his Guernsey-based company BRV Ltd. Each company in the chain added its percentage to the costs.
The lease payments were flowing out of bank accounts belonging to Hamilton at one end and into bank accounts belonging to him at the other end. The profits made by the Isle of Man company belonged ultimately to its owner and only customer: Hamilton.
The data suggests the sole purpose of the leasing business was to allow Hamilton to rent his plane from himself. Invoices show the jet was not leased to anyone else, and there appears to have been no effort to market it to other customers.
Hamilton’s accountant wrote in an email: “The intention is … to charter the aircraft to third parties, however, it is not clear how much charter (if any) will be achieved – no advanced bookings to date.”
Creating a genuine leasing business was essential, however, to reclaim VAT at import. VAT is a European tax, applied in similar ways across all member states. The British and Manx governments, which claim to have exactly the same VAT rules and enforce them in the same way, set the rate at 20% of the purchase price of any goods and services sold.
Like a plumber who acquires a van, jet owners are entitled to reclaim VAT on the purchase and any running costs if they use their aircraft for business purposes. The idea is that those businesses will eventually, like the plumber, generate VAT income for the government by selling things to end consumers. So they get a tax break on the tools they need to carry out their trade.
EY and Appleby advised clients to demonstrate that their jets were being used for business in two ways: by creating a leasing structure and by using the plane for business travel. However, as with a plumber’s van, if a jet is used for private leisure activities, such as visiting family and friends or going on holiday, VAT must be paid, both on the import and any ongoing costs of flying the jet.
Hamilton does not deny that his plane was put to some private use. An article written soon after the purchase described the Challenger as Hamilton’s “£20m love plane”.
With Scherzinger based in Los Angeles and Hamilton in Monaco, the 500mph (800kph) jet would “ease the strain of his long-distance relationship”, friends were quoted as saying.
Hamilton and Nicole Scherzinger, his girlfriend at the time the plane was brought to the Isle of Man. Photograph: Clive Mason/Getty Images
Charter contracts show Hamilton intended, at the date of import, to lease the jet for 80 hours a year under his own name, and for 160 hours a year using his Guernsey company BRV. If one-third of flights were going to be for personal use, his tax bill should have been £1.1m – one-third of the £3.3m due on the £16.5m purchase price.
His arrangement appear to raise the following red flags:
- He appears to have received a 100% import VAT refund when experts say he should have paid tax in proportion to the amount of private use he intended to make.
- He should have declared and paid VAT to any European governments whose airports he used for leisure flights.
- The leasing business set up for his jet appears to be a letterbox company with no real economic purpose, and likely should not have been entitled to reclaim VAT from the Isle of Man.
Edoardo Traversa, a tax expert and law professor at Louvain University in Belgium, said: “The entire scheme seems abusive to me. Using a leasing scheme as such is not abusive. However, if you take other elements into consideration, such as the absence in motive of setting up those companies, the fact those companies do not seem to have any substance, all that is likely to lead the court to consider that the scheme is abusive.”
De la Feria, who also reviewed the files, said: “The only reason I can see for setting up these schemes is to hide private use and not pay VAT on it . If there was private use, this is clearcut avoidance.”
Lawyers for Hamilton said his advisers had made all necessary disclosures to customs and he had never hidden his private use of the jet. They say it was predominantly used for business and the leases reflected the commercial use to which he put the aircraft. They claim there were no tax advantages to using the Isle of Man as opposed to the UK or another EU member state for the import.
Both Appleby and EY declined to comment on individual clients and have said that there is nothing unlawful about their advice.
EY said: “All our advice, whether in planning or compliance, is based on our knowledge of tax law and providing transparency to tax authorities. EY does not offer mass market tax-planning schemes. We support efforts to ensure that tax systems remain robust and relevant to today’s ever-changing business world.”
When Hamilton flies in and out of Germany, Hungary, France and Britain, making use of taxpayer-funded runways, border agencies and air traffic control centres, much of his income is not being shared with those countries’ governments.
The papers also reveal details of how Hamilton channels his earnings through tax haven companies in Guernsey, Malta and the BVI.
In March 2015, data from the Malta companies registry shows he incorporated 44IP, named after his racing number, in that country. Official documents describe the company’s purpose as holding “image rights … trademarks, royalties, copyrights”. Its shares are held by Inday Rose Ltd, the BVI company that also ultimately owns his jet, and BRV. As well as renting the jet, BRV holds Hamilton’s contract with Mercedes, the data suggests.
The purpose of 44IP appears to be to channel income from sponsorship deals via Malta, which charges foreign shareholders a 5% corporation tax rate.
The jet is earning money for Hamilton. He has been featured standing next to it in advertising campaigns and regularly shares glossy photos and videos of his prized possession. Alongside valuable sponsorship deals with the cosmetics group L’Oréal and the speaker brand Bose, Hamilton has been paid to promote Bombardier.
Series / Hell's Kitchen
Hell's Kitchen is a Long Runner American adaptation of a British reality show. The original British version was a pretty standard "celebrities try to cook fine cuisine and fail hilariously" show, with the public voting for the winner, who would receive a decent-sized donation to their chosen charity. Where the British Hell's Kitchen differed from other such shows was that its head chef and mentor, Gordon Ramsay, didn't hold back in calling out the celebrities on their blatant incompetence (as opposed to the relentlessly cheerful chefs that normally appeared on these shows). note In his autobiography, Ramsay was clear that he would never, ever, repeat the British format with completely inexperienced, egotistic and entitled people, as it reflected so badly on his own professional skills and he was concerned at the damage it could potentially do to his reputation. He singled out a career politician with a sense of entitlement a mile wide - who refused to do what she considered as "menial work" (basic prep - she argued other people should be doing this for her) for special bile. This show caught the eye of some American TV execs, who decided they wanted their own version. The resulting new version was one of the few instances where the Transatlantic Equivalent was widely regarded as being better than the original.
Hell's Kitchen features 12㪬 chefs, selected from the thousands that apply each season, competing in various cooking challenges and working in the kitchen of a Hollywood soundstage turned into a fancy restaurant. The prize is a head chef position at a prestigious restaurant, usually with a $250,000 salary. Sounds simple enough, but what provides this show's appeal is that these aspiring chefs must compete and work together under the watchful eye of Gordon Ramsay.
Expect Chef Ramsay to show no mercy to the competitors, as it's his kitchen, and his reputation on the line if they screw up. They are put through their paces in a series of physical, mental, cooking and tasting challenges and dinner services, where they must prepare and cook food to Ramsay's exacting standards. They must co-ordinate with their teammates to ensure that all the food for each table is ready at the same time - if it isn't, Ramsay may force them to start the whole table again. If one or two individuals are failing, Ramsay may kick those chefs out of the kitchen for the remainder of the dinner service. Alternatively he may kick the whole team out of the kitchen, often using his trademark phrase "Shut it down!" or "Switch it off!". After dinner service, a losing team is usually selected (this can also be both teams) from which one or two of the weakest competitors must be nominated by their teammates for elimination. Those chefs that are nominated must then stand in front of Ramsay and tell him why they think they should stay in Hell's Kitchen. He will then decide who to eliminate. Sometimes he will ignore the nominations entirely, or send home a chef from the winning team. On rare occasions he will choose not to send anyone home, if both teams had a good service or someone had already left due to personal or medical reasons.
Much of the show's appeal (even among those who normally hate Reality TV) comes from the fact that it features the same kinds of people that plague these types of shows. but in a shocking diversion, they're punished for being stupid attention-starved assholes and rewarded for showing competence, maturity, and respect to both to each other and especially Chef Ramsay.
One of the most popular shows on FOX, particularly in the summers. Its popularity has led to the adaptation of another of Ramsay's British shows, Kitchen Nightmares, featuring all the swearing and screaming of Hell's Kitchen but without the competition. They even put him in charge of a show he wasn't on in the UK, MasterChef, although he's nicer there, tending to show disappointment instead of anger, and giving a lot of constructive criticism.
Each episode usually consists of the following:
- The Introduction: In the very first episode, all the chefs cook up their signature dishes to impress Ramsay. This is usually nothing more than Ramsay trying to get a feel for what each chef is like through their cooking. From Season 6 onward, this has been a challenge (see the bullet point below).
- The Challenge: The two teams have to complete a challenge. The challenges vary greatly so the contestants never know what to expect, although there are some recurring challenges, like the Blind Taste Test, that appear every year. Commonly, the chefs must use unusual methods of determining the ingredients they will be cooking with, such as picking balls out of a pool, herding animals into cages or rolling a die at a craps table. The dishes they create will then be scored against each other, by Ramsay and sometimes additional guest judges. The team with the most points get rewarded (getting a massage, eating with Gordon at a fancy restaurant, etc.) while the losing team faces punishment, usually doing very tedious tasks such as mincing meat and grinding peppercorns by hand, sorting through rubbish, prepping both kitchens for dinner service, cleaning the dining room, or handling the food deliveries. When it comes down to the final six contestants, there is only one winner for the challenges, but sometimes they have the option to choose one of their fellow contestants to share the reward with.
- Dinner Service: The main meat of the show and where most of the drama happens. Both teams must cook for their half of the dining room (once they are down to the final six, the contestants become one team and must feed the entire dining room). The dishes must be cooked to Ramsay's exacting standards, and all food for each table must be ready at the same time. If it isn't, the culprits will quickly be established and dealt with by Ramsay. If an individual is failing on a section, Ramsay may kick them off that section or out of the kitchen altogether for the remainder of the service. In rare cases, Ramsay will eliminate a contestant in the middle of dinner service. If one or both teams just can't seem to get their shit together, he will kick the whole team out of the kitchen. At this point, or at the end of service, Ramsay will declare which team(s) lost, and tell them to nominate one or two individuals for elimination.
- Elimination: The chefs must tell Ramsay who they have nominated from their team and why. If he is not happy with their choices or reasons, he may overrule the nominations. Either way, the chefs he names must "step forward". He will then ask each chef why they think they should stay in Hell's Kitchen. After they've all had their say, Ramsay decides who to eliminate. Sometimes, he will eliminate someone who didn't "step forward" or even someone on the winning team. Rarely, he may send more than one contestant home, or none at all. Sometimes he will move contestants from one team to another, for various reasons, or ask them to nominate one of their team to go to the other team. Often the moving of contestants is done at the stage when the chefs are "stepped forward" and may be eliminated Ramsay will ask for their jacket, to make them think they are being eliminated, then say to them "You're in the red/blue team!". Sometimes he will ask for their jacket, only to say to them "it's filthy dirty, put on this clean one".
The finale changes things up. From seasons 1-5, the two finalists meet with the show's interior designer to discuss how they want their own dining rooms to look for the final dinner service. The dining room redesign was dropped from season 6 onward. Ramsay then takes the finalists to the restaurant that they could win and they have to perform one last challenge by cooking several meals to be presented to several professional chefs. Eight chefs that were sent home previously come back one last time to help out the finalists during dinner service. After everything is all over, the finalists stand behind a pair of doors. One of them opens and the other does not. The chef who gets the unlocked door is the big winner of Hell's Kitchen.
- This was slightly changed in the 2010 finale: The finalists were told they would be receiving a trip to Australia in the future. This was perhaps because they couldn't make a quick trip to London to see the restaurant of which they'd be placed in charge.
Not to be confused with the manga or haunted house of the same name, Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, or the former title of The Boy Who Fell.
Give the Plant Ideal Growing Conditions
True for avoiding any plant disease, a healthy, vigorous plant is less susceptible to problems. Roses prefer a sunny location with well-draining soil and regular, weekly watering. Plant roses in a place where they receive morning sun, which helps dry moisture from the leaves. Full, all-day sun is best.
Good Air Flow
Provide good air circulation around and through your rose plants. Do not plant your roses too close to other plants. Prune to open the spaces between canes, if the plant gets too dense and air cannot get through. By providing good air circulation and ensuring canes don't cross, black spot will have a harder time spreading.
Avoid getting the leaves wet while watering. There is not much you can do about rain, but avoid overhead sprinklers and focus water directly to the plant's roots.
Pests & Diseases
Diseases (Bacterial, Fungal & Viral)
Altenaria Blight, Altenaria sp.: Azalea and rhododendron flowers can be affected by this disease. The disease is characterized by a grey powdery fungal growth over the flower. The fungus will kill the flower. It is similar to Botrytis Blight and Twig Blight.
Azalea Rust, Puccininastrum vaccinii: Many of the Heath family are susceptible to rust, including azaleas, rhododendrons, and blueberries. Small pustules appear on the underside of leaves. These pustules burst open to discharge bright yellow or brownish spores that reinfect the rhododendrons or azaleas. The alternate host is the eastern hemlock, where the clustercup stage appears on its needles. This stage is not necessary to the spread of the fungus among the Heath family as the summer stage can over-winter on rhododendron. Control of this disease is usually not necessary. This disease is relatively uncommon in landscape plants. Many of the newer varieties are even less susceptible. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer]
Botryosphaeria Dieback, Botryosphaeria dothidea: Rhododendron Dieback is caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea. Typically, dying branches (stem dieback) begin to appear on an otherwise healthy plant. The leaves die and can remain attached to the plant until late summer. Usually a single branch on an established plant is affected. Scraping away the bark with a knife reveals a reddish-brown discoloration under the bark on dying branches of rhododendron. Dieback is difficult to control on rhododendrons in the landscape. The following rhododendron varieties are considered resistant: 'Boursalt,' 'Chionoides White,' 'Cunningham's White,' 'English Roseum, 'Le Barr's Red,' 'Roseum Two' and 'Wissahickon.' Reduce stress to the plants by planting in partial shade and watering during dry periods. Avoid wounding the plant. Prune infected branches well below all discolored wood and dispose of dead plant material. Clean pruning tools between cuts with a dilute solution of household bleach (1 part bleach to 9 parts water). Return to Top
Botrytis Blight, Botrytis cinerea: Azalea and rhododendron flowers can be affected by this disease. The disease is characterized by a grey powdery fungal growth over the flower. A mass of gray spores may be produced on the leaf surface. Infected shoots bend over at the lesion and may remain crooked or die back. The fungus will kill the flower. Purple varieties are more susceptible to this disease. True resistance is not available as Botrytis is an opportunistic pathogen. To help reduce disease incidence, growers adjust plant spacing to reduce humidity and increase air circulation. It is similar to Altenaria Blight and Twig Blight.
Bud Blast, Seifertia azaleae: Bud blast is a symptom of the fungal diseases Seifertia azaleae, Pycnostysanus or Briosia azaleaea, but may also be caused by a late frost or application of a nitrogen containing fertilizer too late in the season which prevents the buds from hardening off. In all cases the buds turn brown or black. Bud Blast will cause the dead bud to be covered with short hair-like structures. They are best controlled by sanitation, but may be reduced by spraying buds with fungicide. Avoid application of nitrogen after late spring, but phosphorus and potassium may be applied during the growing season. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer]
Crown Gall, Agrobacterium tumefaciens:a bacterial disease of rhododendrons. This bacterium causes the host plant to produce galls at the crown, on roots, or on branches. The gall is a light tan color at first but turns brown to black with age. Galls are soft and round when they first form but later develop a irregular, rough, and corky surface with a woody interior. The size of the gall varies from the diameter of a pea to a foot or more. Plants may be stunted, discolored, and die back. Young plants eventually wilt and die while older plants survive in a weakened condition.
Exobasidium Leaf and Flower Gall, Exobasidium vaccinii: Exobasidium vaccinii is a very common fungal disease in the spring during wet, humid, cooler weather on azaleas and occasionally on rhododendrons. Some of the native rhododendron species (azaleas) are more susceptible than hybrid rhododendrons. In April and May leaves and buds of infected plants develop distorted growth. The fungus invades expanding leaf and flower buds causing these tissues to swell and become fleshy, bladder-like galls. Initially, the galls are pale green to pinkish. Eventually, they become covered with a whitish mold-like growth. Fungal spores are produced within the white growth and are spread by water-splashing or wind to other expanding leaf or flower buds, or they adhere to newly formed buds, over-winter, and infect these buds the following spring. Older leaves and flowers are immune to infection. As the galls age, they turn brown and hard. The disease does not cause significant damage to affected plants. It just looks unsightly. If only a few plants are affected, pick and destroy galls. Also see Gall Midge. Return to Top
Necrotic Ring Spot, Leptosphaeria korrea: Necrotic ring spots are caused by a virus thought to be a potexvirus. The symptoms are reddish-brown rings or spots on the leaves. It generally occurs only on the two-year leaves of a few rhododendron cultivars such as R. 'Unique', or on Kalmia latifolia. It also appears on the first year foliage of some R. 'Loderi' clones. Little is known about the disease and it does not seem to spread from one cultivar to another. No control is known or generally necessary. Also see Leaf Spot. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer]
Pestalotia Leaf Spot, Pestalotia rhododendri: If a leaf has brown areas with white spots, it probably has a local fungal infection of Pestalotia leaf spot. This is seldom controlled with fungicides and is best mitigated by good sanitation and avoiding excessive moisture. Also see Leaf Spot.
Petal Blight, Ovulinia azaleae: This fungal disease, caused by Ovulinia azaleae, primarily affects the flowers of azaleas, but mountain laurel and rhododendron flowers can also be infected. Indian and Kurume azaleas are especially susceptible. The disease starts on the flower petals as tiny, irregularly-shaped spots, giving a "freckled" appearance. On colored flowers the spots are white, and on white flowers the spots are brown. The spots quickly enlarge and become soft and watery. Flowers rot and stick to the leaves. Infection is easily spread from flower to flower by wind, rain and insects. The fungus survives the winter in the soil. The most important things that you can do to control this disease in the home landscape are to pick and destroy infected flowers and avoid overhead watering. This fungus survives in the soil, so it is important to replace the ground litter with uncontaminated mulches. Rake and remove flower debris from beneath plants and, if possible, remove old flowers still attached to plants. Apply new mulch around the base of plants to serve as a barrier to new infection. On large azalea plantings, where it is not practical to remove infected flowers, make weekly fungicide applications beginning just before bloom and continue until the last buds open. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer] Return to Top
Phomopsis Dieback, Phomopsis rhododendri: Azalea Dieback is caused by the oomycete, or water mold, Phomopsis rhododendri. Typically, dying branches (stem dieback) begin to appear on an otherwise healthy plant. The leaves die and can remain attached to the plant until late summer. Usually a single branch on an established plant is affected. Scraping away the bark with a knife reveals discolored wood under the bark that appears chocolate brown. Dieback is difficult to control on azaleas in the landscape. The azalea varieties that are the least susceptible include: 'Delaware Valley White,' 'Hershey Red,' 'Pink Gumpo' and 'Snow.' Reduce stress to the plants by planting in partial shade and watering during dry periods. Avoid wounding the plant. Prune infected branches well below all discolored wood and dispose of dead plant material. Clean pruning tools between cuts with a dilute solution of household bleach (1 part bleach to 9 parts water). Also see Phytophthora Dieback, Phytophthora Root Rot and Rhizoctonia Root Rot.
Phytophthora Dieback, Phytophthora cactorum: The oomycete, or water mold, Phytophthora causes one of the most common disease problems in the landscape for rhododendrons and azaleas. This oomycete is a "water mold," and thrives in poorly drained or wet conditions. A wilted plant is usually the first sign of trouble. Rhododendron leaves will curl inward and droop. Drought can cause similar symptoms. Roots of affected plants appear soggy or blackened, and the outer portion of the root easily pulls away from the inner portion. Crown rot causes the lower portions of the stem to have a brown discoloration of the wood near the soil line. This disease is favored in poorly drained areas or when plants are set too deeply. Plants may remain without symptoms until further stressed from drought or flooding. Azaleas. Resistant: R. sanctum, R. simsii (Indian azalea), R. yedoense var. poukhanense (Korean azalea), 'Corrine,' 'Fakir,' 'Fred Cochran,' 'Glacier,' 'Hampton Beauty,' 'Higasa,' 'Merlin,' 'Polar Sea,' 'Rose Greeley'. Moderately resistant: 'Alaska,' 'Chimes,' 'Eikan,' 'Jan Cochran,' 'Morning Glow,' 'New White,' 'Pink Gumpo,' 'Pink Supreme,' 'Rachel Cunningham,' 'Red Wing,' 'Shinkigen,' 'Sweetheart Supreme'. Rhododendrons. Resistant: 'Caroline,' 'Martha Isaacson,' 'Pink Trumpet,' 'Prof. Hugo de Vries,' 'Red Head,' R. davidsonianum, R. delavayi, R. glomerulatum, R. hyperythrum, R. lapponicum, R. occidentale, R. poukhanense, R. pseudochrysanthum, R. quinquefolium and R. websterianum. Do not set new plants any deeper than the original soil level. Planting in raised beds is suggested. Firm the soil slightly at the base of the planting hole to prevent the plant from settling into the bed. Do not plant azalea and rhododendron plants into sites where plants have previously died from root rot. Even resistant plants may succumb under these conditions. The oomycete survives in the soil and cannot be eradicated once an area is infected. Also see Phomopsis Dieback, Phytophthora Root Rot and Rhizoctonia Root Rot. Return to Top
Phytophthora Root Rot, Phytophthora cinnamomi: This is a serious, widespread and difficult-to-control oomycete, or water mold, affecting a wide range of plants . The symptoms of Phytophthora root rot vary with the cultivar. Some cultivars fail to grow or grow very slowly with pale green foliage and may die after several years. Others suddenly wilt and die within a few weeks. Roots are reddish-brown, brittle and often limited to the upper portion of the media in a container or very close to the soil surface (upper 2 inches). The reddish-brown discoloration advances to the larger roots and eventually to the lower part of the main stem. Phytophthora root rot is favored by high soil moisture and warm soil temperatures. The disease does not occur as frequently and may not be as severe on well-drained sandy soils as in heavy clays or poorly drained soils, etc. The disease is common and severe in areas where run-off water, rainwater from roofs, etc. collects around plant roots. Setting woody plants deeper than the soil level in the nursery or container, over-watering plants, or long periods of heavy rain also favor disease develop especially in shallow soils with underlying rock or compacted hard pans. Phytophthora root rot must be prevented as chemicals are often ineffective in controlling this disease after aboveground symptoms appear. Also see Phomopsis Dieback, Phytophthora Dieback and Rhizoctonia Root Rot.
Powdery Mildew, Microsphaera azaleae: Powdery mildew causes azalea and rhododendron leaves to discolor and become coated with a white powdery fungal growth. Control of the disease is difficult, especially in certain weather conditions that favor the disease, i.e. when it is warm and humid. Plants that are young or are growing in the shade are often most susceptible.
|Rhododendron Powdery Mildew||Rhododendron Powdery Mildew||Deciduous Azalea Powdery Mildew|
Rhizoctonia Root Rot, Rhizoctonia solani: Rhizoctonia solani is widespread and causes more trouble with rhododendrons than is generally realized. Rhizoctonia can kill small or large bushes or just keep them in poor condition. Symptoms may include small necrotic spots on leaves, which later become dark brown or black. Defoliation follows severe leaf spotting. The fungus is omnipresent in the soil and appears to be most virulent at high humidity levels. Microscopic examination of roots and crown are the surest diagnosis. Cultural practices to control this disease include improvement of drainage and avoidance of excess irrigation. Also see Phomopsis Dieback, Phytophthora Dieback and Phytophthora Root Rot.
Rhizoctonia Web Blight causes dieback of interior leaves of compact tightly-growing azaleas within irrigated landscape beds. Rhizoctonia web blight is often seen during the warmer, humid summer months. Infection begins in the interior of the plant as the fungus survives in the soil or container rooting medium. Infected leaves develop brown lesions and eventually the entire leaf will brown and separate from the stem. The affected leaves often remain matted together by the fungus´s web-like growth (hyphae) that holds the brown leaves within the canopy. As the temperature cools in the fall, the fungus stops growing and the matted leaves drop from the plant. The disease is only a problem in landscape azaleas that are sprinkler irrigated. Wet foliage and high humidity favor infection. Use drip irrigation or soaker hoses to irrigate landscape beds. Also, remove fallen leaf debris from beneath plants. Fungicides can provide some control but should not be relied upon solely. Apply fungicides at the first sign of disease and continue through the summer months.
The Department of Agriculture Research Service has found a prevention. Plant pathologist Warren Copes found placing the cuttings in water at 122 degrees Fahrenheit for 20 minutes is the most effective method to eliminate Rhizoctonia without damaging the plant, thus eliminating the need for fungicide treatment. The pathogen can be eliminated in less time when placed in water at higher temperature, but the risk of damaging the cutting increases. According to Copes, there is still potential for the cuttings to be re-contaminated in other areas of the production process. He is trying to identify which steps pose the most risk for re-contamination, with the goal of maximizing control of this fungal disease with the least amount of effort and expense for producers.
Twig Blight, Seifertia azaleae: Azalea and rhododendron branches can be affected by this disease. The disease is characterized by a grey powdery fungal growth over the flower. A mass of gray spores may be produced on the leaf and branches surface. Infected shoots bend over at the lesion and may remain crooked or die back. Purple varieties are more susceptible to this disease. True resistance is not available as this is an opportunistic pathogen. To help reduce disease incidence, growers adjust plant spacing to reduce humidity and increase air circulation. It is similar to Altenaria Blight and Botrytis Blight. Return to Top
Azalea Bark Scale, Eriococcus azalea: This insect prefers azalea or rhododendron but can infest andromeda, maple, willow, poplar and other plants. Females are approximately 1/8-inch long White felt-like sacs are secreted in May that enclose the body and eggs. Eggs are laid in the spring and hatch from late-June to mid-July. These mobile immatures are known as "crawlers". The crawlers like to attach to the bark and feed in crevices and branch forks. This pest over-winters as a nymph (immature). There is one generation per year. Overwintering nymphs are about 1/16 inch long, gray, and can usually be found in twig forks. Scales insert their piercing-sucking mouthparts into the plant and feed on the juices. Azaleas can tolerate low numbers of these insects. These scales excrete a sticky, sweet liquid called "honeydew" which promotes the growth of black sooty mold fungus on contaminated surfaces. Honeydew, sooty mold and leaf yellowing with dieback are signs associated with infestation by this insect. Beneficial insects often control this insect. Light pruning or dormant oil may be used to suppress overwintering nymphs on twigs. Dormant oils and insecticidal soap may be used to control crawlers that emerge from eggs. Beneficial insects often control this pest. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer] Also see Cottony Azalea Scale.
Azalea Lace Bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides: similar to Rhododendron Lace Bugs, Stephanitis rhododendri
Azalea Leafminers, Caloptilia azaleella: (also known as azalea leafroller) The insect is a small yellow caterpillar 1/2" long. It first lives in the leaf. However, before completing its feeding stage, it leaves the interior of the leaf, folds over the margin and continues feeding on the surface. Injured leaves turn yellow and drop. When mature the larva moves to a new leaf, rolls it into a case and pupates. This insect probably over-winters as a pupae or partially grown larvae. The golden adult moth is about 1/2" long and very secretive. Eggs are laid singly on the underside of a leaf near the midvein. Among the compounds registered for control of this pest in Connecticut are malathion or acephate sprays, applied in June, for control of the larvae. Imidacloprid applied to the soil as a systemic can provide season-long control. Consult the label for dosage rates and safety precautions. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer] Return to Top
Azalea Whitefly, Pealius azaleae: similar to Rhododendron Whitefly, Dialeurodes chittendeni
Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus and Strawberry Root Weevil, Otiorhynchus ovatus: Adult snout beetles are 3/8-inch long, black, with small yellow spots on the back. All adults are females capable of laying as many as 500 eggs. These eggs are laid in the soil. Adults are seldom seen because they feed on the foliage at night and hide in plant debris or in the soil during the day. The larvae are inch long, white and legless grubs. This pest over-winters as larvae in the soil the adults emerge in early June. There is one generation per year. The adults feed at night by notching the leaves. This damage is seldom serious. The grubs or larvae can be highly destructive since they feed on the roots from mid-summer into late fall and again in the spring. In heavy infestations, most of the small feeder roots are destroyed larger roots and crowns may be girdled. As a result, there is little or no plant growth, the foliage is often yellowed and may dry out. This pest is difficult to control since it is nocturnal and every adult is capable of reproduction. At present, control should be directed at the adults. [Photos courtesy of Harold Greer] Also see Twobanded Japanese Weevil.
Cottony Azalea Scale, Pulvinaria floccifera: Adult female scale has a fluted cottony egg sac secreted from the body of the scale. It occurs on camellia, English ivy, euonymous, holly, hydrangea, maple, mulberry, pittosporum, rhododendron, yew, and other ornamental plants. Eggs in the egg sac hatch into six-legged "crawler" stages than move onto larger twigs and branches. They develop through several stages before becoming adults. They retain their legs and are able to move throughout their development. Developing stages suck sap from the host plants, resulting in reduced plant vigor, defoliation and dieback of twigs and branches. Adults are unsightly and produce large quantities of honeydew on which the sooty mold fungus grows, turning infested plants of parts black. Also see Azalea Bark Scale. Return to Top
Cranberry Rootworm, Rhadopterus picipes: Shiny and black with a greenish sheen, these beetles are about 3/16 inch long. They feed at night and hide in litter or under containers during the day. Beetles damage leaves by chewing oval-shaped holes. They are usually associated with container nursery stock in areas with dense shade. Remove ground litter and weeds from the area and reduce shade where possible. Treat late in the day and repeat once or twice weekly.
Long-tailed Mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus: Small cottony masses with long, waxy filaments extending from one end is a symptom of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus, which is a sucking insect that colonizes on the least accessible parts of plants. Since it is hard to see, systemic insecticides are preferred, but thorough treatment with a contact insecticide may provide control. Infested plants will have honeydew and sooty mold (black coating) on the leaves. Terminal leaves may become yellow and distorted, and dieback may occur. Infested plants are usually growing in sheltered locations, such as against south facing walls. The mealybugs may be found on lower leaf surfaces and stems. Adult mealybugs are about 1/8 inch long, and covered with white wax. The body margin is ringed with white wax filaments, with the last pair over 1/2 the length of the body. Immature mealybugs have short wax filaments. This mealybug feeds on pyracantha, holly, yew, and rhododendron. There are two to three generations a year, and the immatures over-winter on the bark. Inspect plants for beneficial predators such as ladybird beetles. Some immature ladybird beetles may resemble the mealybugs, but move faster. If the mealybug problem persists, ant control may be necessary. Ants feed on the honeydew secreted by the mealybugs and protect them from parasites and predators. Return to Top
Red-headed Azalea Caterpillar, Datana major: These caterpillars are black with rows of white or pale yellow spots, reddish brown legs, head and neck area and are 2 1/2 inches when mature. Preferred host plants are azaleas, but they may also attack witch hazel, sumac, apple, red oak and andromeda. The caterpillars feed together when young and disperse as they mature. Branches or entire plants may be defoliated. Damage occurs in late summer and fall. Control: Look for caterpillars when defoliation damage occurs, and if only a few caterpillars are present, pick them off by hand. If needed, spray shrubs with B.t. (Bacillus thuringiensis), a microbial insecticide that is specific for caterpillars. It is sold under various trade names including Caterpillar Attack, Thuricide, Dipel, etc. Apply sprays when caterpillars are numerous and less than 3/4 of an inch long. Larger caterpillars must be sprayed with a registered residual insecticide. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer]
Rhododendron Aphid: Small, numerous, green insects winged or wingless with a pair of "bumps" or projections (cornicles) on top of their rear ends. Aphids are usually more of a problem in greenhouse stock.
Rhododendron Borer, Synanthedon rhododendri: The adults of this pest are day-flying moths that resemble wasps or yellow jackets. They are approximately 1/4-inch long, making them the smallest clear-wing borer. The wings are mostly clear, and the body is black with three yellow abdominal bands. Adults appear in late-May into June and females lay eggs on the twigs. Upon hatching, the small grub-like caterpillars, with white bodies and dark heads, bore into the inner bark, and later the sapwood, of the main stems and branches. This pest over-winters in the burrows as a inch long mature larva. There is one generation per year. The boring activities of the larvae cause wilted, off-color foliage, reduced growth and dead branches. Prune and destroy wilting branches in late summer or early spring. Also see Rhododendron Stem Borer, Oberea myops Return to Top
Rhododendron Gall Midge, Clinodiplosis rhododendri: Clinodiplosis rhododendri usually over-winters in the soil as a prepupa. Pupation occurs in spring, with the adult midge emerging just as the hosts begin vegetative growth. There may be two additional generations yearly corresponding with flushes of rhododendron growth. Eggs are laid in clusters on the undersurfaces of leaves that are emerging from buds. Larval feeding causes a downward and inward rolling of leaf margins. Larvae mature in about seven days, drop to the ground, burrow in and make a cocoon. Also see Gall (fungal).
Rhododendron Lace Bugs, Stephanitis rhododendri, and Azalea Lace Bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides: Adults are about 1/8-inch long. The body is pale yellow. The lacy wings (very distinctive) are held flat over the back and are transparent with two dark spots present. The nymphs are black, spiny and smaller than the adults. The eggs over-winter partially embedded in leaf tissue. The eggs hatch in May. The nymphs mature into adults in June and lay eggs during late June and July. The second generation of nymphs appears in August. The over-wintering eggs will be laid when these nymphs become adults. adults and nymphs feed on the undersides of leaves by piercing the leaves with their mouthparts and sucking the plant juices. This causes a mottled, silvery or white discoloration, known as stippling, on top of the leaf where the chlorophyll has been removed. The undersides of leaves are covered with dark brown to black, sticky spots of excrement. Plant rhododendrons in shade to maximize the activities of beneficial insects. [Photo courtesy of Harold Greer] Return to Top
Rhododendron Stem Borer, Oberea myops, or Dogwood Twig Borer,Oberea tripunctator: Adults are dark-colored beetles that are about 5/8 inch long. They have long antennae and are pale yellow with two black spots behind the head. In late June to early July, female beetles lay their eggs in new shoots several inches below the bud. The larvae emerge, bore into and down the interior of the twig where they over-winter. The following year, the larvae continue to bore downward where they over-winter in the roots. Adults are present every year, but each insect takes two years to complete a life cycle. Adult beetles feed on the undersides of leaves along the midveins, causing the leaves to curl. Boring by the larvae causes wilting and eventual dieback of individual canes. Prune and destroy wilting branches. Also see Rhododendron Borer, Synanthedon rhododendri
Rhododendron Whitefly, Dialeurodes chittendeni and Azalea Whitefly, Pealius azaleae: The adults are powdery white insects about 1/16-inch long that look like tiny moths. Clouds of adults may take to flight if an infested plant is disturbed. Females lay eggs on the undersides of leaves, and when the nymphs hatch, they attach to the foliage and feed for the duration of their immature lives. They over-winter as black, flattened, oval immature insects with a white border. There are two or more generations per year. Nymphs remove plant juices with piercing-sucking mouth parts. Heavily infested foliage takes on a yellow, mottled appearance. The immatures also produce honeydew which may lead to the development of black sooty mold fungus growth. This discolors the plant and can reach levels that interfere with photosynthesis. This pest can be difficult to control because all of the life stages are usually present at the same time, and the eggs and pupae are not susceptible to most insecticides. Rhododendron varieties that have thick, leathery leaves often escape infestation. They are generally considered a pest and not threatening. If the infestation is light, little or no plant symptoms are evident, and if beneficial insects are present, one can spray the undersides of leaves with insecticidal soap or a horticultural oil at the 2% summer rate. If the infestation is heavy use a registered residual insecticide such as Malathion, Diazinon or Orthene. Dick Murcott had a simple remedy to control the numbers of white flies. He would hang pieces of stiff plastic or 12" square metal sheets painted with a bright yellow/orange paint and then covered with petroleum jelly or any clear, sticky material. The white flies will fly to the colored material and get stuck in the sticky stuff! Return to Top
Strawberry Root Weevil, Otiorhynchus ovatus: similar to Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus
Thrips, Thrips imaginis: This insect is a seasonal pest, causing most damage in mid to late summer. Signs of damage include silvering of the foliage and distortion of growing points and flower buds. The underside of leaves may be covered with excreta of the insect, which are like brown tar droplets. There are no effective specific biological controls and thus control can be difficult to achieve. Thrips are preyed upon by ladybirds and lacewings but these predators cannot control thrips in plague situations.
Twobanded Japanese Weevil, Callirhopalus bifasciatus: Adults are about 3/16-inch long. They are thick bodied and brown to gray with two darker bands across the back. The larvae are C-shaped, 1egless, white grubs with brown heads and 1/4 inch long when mature. Eggs are laid from mid-May throughout the summer. The white eggs are laid on the inside of a folded leaf. When the larvae hatch, they drop to the ground and burrow into the soil. All stages may over-winter in the soil or under plant debris. There is one generation per year. The adults notch leaves, causing more damage to foliage than the black vine weevil. They prefer to feed on new and inner foliage. If there is a large adult population, smaller plants can be defoliated. Larvae feed on the roots and can cause discoloration, wilting and death of small plants. Most damage, however, is caused by the adults. Also see Black Vine Weevil. Return to Top
Azalea White Mite, Eotetranychus clitus and Southern Red Mite, Oligonychus ilicis: Adult mites are very small, about the size of a period. They are oval shaped, reddish colored, with eight legs. The immatures appear the same, only a little smaller and with six legs. The red eggs over-winter on the undersides of leaves. There are several generations per year. Most activity takes place during the cooler weather of spring and fall. During the heat of summer, the life cycle is in the egg stage. Leaf damage is visible as white stippling damage on both sides of the leaf. In a heavy infestation, the leaves will turn brown, die and may drop off the plant. The undersides of the leaves are often coated with hatched egg shells and shed skins from molted mites. When tapping the foliage onto paper, look for the extremely small, long-legged, light-colored beneficial mites which move quicker than the southern red mites. They may be able to control the pest population. Dormant oil can be used if there is a large number of over-wintering eggs. Certain oil formulations can be used in the summer. Other possible chemicals are avermectin, oxythioquinox and dicofol. Also see Two Spotted Spider Mite.
Southern Red Mite, Oligonychus ilicis:Similar to Azalea White Mite, Eotetranychus clitus
Two Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae: This is the most common and destructive mite on deciduous ornamentals. It has an extremely wide host range and will feed on many varieties of trees, shrubs, flowers, weeds, fruits, greenhouse and field crops. Immatures and adults are yellowish to greenish with two dark spots on either side of the body. Eggs are spherical and translucent. Strands of webbing are spun by the mites on the undersides of infested leaves and between branches. Twospotted spider mites over-winter as adult females in the soil or under the bark of host plants. They become active during the spring and may feed and reproduce throughout the summer and into fall provided conditions remain favorable for plant growth. It is considered a 'warm season' mite which thrives under hot, dry summer conditions. Damaging populations seldom during wet, cool weather. The mites are especially destructive to winged euonymous (burning bush) in landscapes. Also see Azalea White Mite.
Bordeaux Barely Avoids Helicopter Mildew Treatment - Recipes
I was tickled to learn that “vitalizing” essential oil of sweet orange also helps treat downy and powdery mildews on wine grapes. I’m sure it makes the vineyards smell lovely, too. But “vitalizing?” It sounds like a made-up word “I can’t today, I’m out vitalizing…”
Three years ago I wrote what has turned out to be my most-read blog post, a summary of a study on pesticides in French wine. A French consumer protection organization, Que Choisir, tested around 100 French wines for 165 different pesticide residues, including some banned pesticides, naming names in their published results.
In the background for the study, Que Choisir indicated that vineyards use 20% of the country’s agricultural pesticide volume, even though they account for less than 4% of agricultural land use. Since the French government had launched an initiative to reduce pesticide use by 50% from 2007 to 2018, Que Choisir wanted not only to inform consumers about which wine regions appeared to use the most pesticides, but also point the way to regulators for targeted reductions.
Since the study was done more than four years ago, I contacted Que Choisir to see if they were doing a follow up. The organization replied that they are planning to do one in 2019 or 2020 – presumably after the 2018 pesticide use reduction period ends, to see what the results are.
However, they mentioned something I hadn’t known before: Vineyards account for 80% of the total fungicide use in France, despite the low overall percentage of acreage of vineyards in total agricultural land use. (Note that fungicides are considered pesticides as well, so the figure of 20% of total pesticide use includes fungicides.)
I guess I shouldn’t have been surprised to learn this. Grapes and grapevines are susceptible to all kinds of mildew (powdery mildew, downy mildew, and Botritis), molds, and just plain rot if there aren’t precautions. Climate can help – hot and dry with steady winds can keep undesirables in check. Targeted leaf removal from the vines, to get more sun and air circulation, is another technique, as is tying leaves to the trellis wires to keep them separated and keep some of the leaves away from the grape clusters.
Fungicides are still widely used, though, so I wanted to learn more about them. This isn’t a comprehensive look by any means, just a first pass to see what substances get used and why. The initial takeaway here is that fungicide use, at least as currently practiced in vineyards and agriculture in general, is almost certainly the least of our worries where pesticides are concerned.
By far the biggest fungicide use on wine grapes comes from two things – sulfur or copper. Four of the 10 substances on the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s list of 10 permitted fungicides for use in organic farming contain those two elements in naturally-derived forms. Two others are potassium compounds. The remainders are natural oils.
One of my French producers whose vineyards are certified organic confirmed that these are the substances she uses as fungicides on her vines. Sulfur and copper are used as sparingly as possible. Additionally, she uses essential oil of sweet orange, potassium bicarbonate, and various naturally-occurring bacteria that help combat mold and mildew.
Many of you may remember copper sulfate crystals from high school chemistry lab. In addition to turning things a lovely blue color, copper sulfate is a commonly-used fungicide for wine grapes.
Of course, there are plenty of synthetically-derived fungicides too, some of them are likely used on conventionally-grown wine grapes. Looking at U.S. EPA’s latest estimates, though, the most-used synthetic fungicide comes in way behind copper and sulfur compounds in terms of total use. (This is for all U.S. agriculture, and not just for wine grapes. Still, it tells me that most fungicides used out there aren’t the really scary ones. I think that’s good news for all of us.)
The advantage of copper and sulfur is that they’re topical — they get applied to the vines and grapes and don’t get absorbed by the plants, and so are easily washed away by rain. They don’t end up in the grapes – as opposed to fungicides that are sprayed on the plants and soil to be absorbed through the leaves or roots and work from the inside. These are called systemic fungicides, and you’d be much more likely to find their residue in the grapes than topical fungicides. Che Choisir didn’t test for the ten fungicides allowed for organic use. But even if they had, these substances almost certainly wouldn’t have shown up in wines.
This doesn’t mean there can’t be problems with the fungicides approved for organic use. Prolonged exposure to copper can cause kidney and liver damage. Workers have to take precautions when applying copper to avoid inhaling the liquid or dust. And since it’s a metal and doesn’t break down, the amount in the soil can build up if used too frequently. My producer told me that her vineyard’s soil gets tested every year for copper to make sure they’re minimizing accumulation. This becomes particularly important when people are working in the fields, to avoid inhaling copper from soil dust.
Potential health effects of sulfur as it’s used in agricultural practice have barely been studied at this point. I suspect it’s partly because sulfur was used as a topical antibiotic for centuries, so there’s a predisposition to expect little harm. And so far there hasn’t been any indication of issues with non-worker exposure for adults. However, vineyard workers wear protective gear to prevent skin, eye, and respiratory irritation when they apply sulfur.
But there may be unintended health issues beyond the fields. A 2017 study on children’s exposure indicated increased incidence of asthma and other respiratory illnesses for children living within one kilometer of farm fields treated with sulfur. Children inhale more air per pound of body weight than adults so their exposure is going to be greater than adults’ would be under the same circumstances. Obviously, more research is needed, but it’s clear that it’s worth extra caution to avoid overuse and drifting beyond the fields.
The other issue is that molds and mildews can become resistant to treatment, even with copper and sulfur. Everyone’s heard about antibiotic-resistant “super-bugs,” and there are some weeds that have become resistant to the herbicide Roundup. But there have been cases of resistant mold in vineyards already, so it’s worth minimizing use of even the least harmful substances. The temptation is to think more is better just in case, but we certainly don’t want to have to stop using the things that seem to work with the least potential harm.
So what started as a seemingly alarming statistic about fungicide use in French vineyards doesn’t seem so scary. This isn’t to say that grape growers don’t want to minimize fungicide use, to minimize worker exposure, protect surrounding communities, and potentially save money. But I’m more worried about things like the U.S. EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt’s decision not to ban chlorpyrifos – an insecticide widely used on produce – despite the agency’s own scientists recommending the ban due to its neurodevelopmental effects (demonstrated through decades of data). As I mentioned last time, drinking wine may not extend your life, but at least we don’t have to worry about children’s nervous systems being affected by its production.
Now that we have our kitchen back and better than ever, I’ve been in there a lot. But doing just as much baking as cooking. I got a copy of Sweet by Yotam Ottolenghi and Helen Goh and so far have made three desserts from it, including one called “Vineyard Cake” with grapes on top and a 500 ml bottle of sweet dessert wine in the batter. But my favorite of the three were the madeleines made with honey, orange, and saffron.
I’d never used saffron in a dessert before. You could taste it (and see the threads), and it was warm and just slightly spicy. Since my husband is half-Iranian, we get some excellent saffron and I use it in Persian food. My first encounters with it, though, were in Seafood Paella and Bouillabaisse. But it also works well with chicken. In fact, my mother used to make a chicken version of Bouillabaisse from a cookbook I gave her in 1989 called Mediterranean Light, by Martha Rose Shulman. Shulman wrote a few “light” cookbooks, and I think they hold up better today than when they were published. Mostly because we have access to a lot more and better ingredients than we did back then. And if you’re going to eliminate most (or all) of the butter and cream from recipes, you need really good ingredients.
I have changed almost everything about the original recipe. And I’ve added back the rouille, which is a garlic mayonnaise that you spread on toasted baguette slices and either float on the Bouillabaisse, dip in, or eat on the side (which I do, since I don’t like soggy bread). The rouille is good for other things, it makes a great sandwich spread or add more olive oil to it and use it as a vegetable dip. Shulman adds potatoes and shelled fava beans to her recipe, but I use the rouille and bread instead of potatoes, and a drain and rinsed can of small white beans instead of the favas.
Bouillabaisse is Provençal in origin, so you’d probably expect a rosé with it. But I think Cave la Vinsobraise White ($12) is a better pairing because the blend of White Grenache, Viognier, and Marsanne hits all the same notes as the Bouillabaisse. In fact, get two bottles because you’ll need almost a whole bottle just for the dish. How nice when your food gets to drink well, too!
10 boneless, skinless chicken thighs, each thigh cut into 4 pieces
4 tablespoons olive oil, plus extra for drizzling
2 large onions, sliced thin
4 garlic cloves, minced fine
6 scallions, white and green parts sliced separately
1 14-ounce can petite diced tomatoes, drained
3 cups low-sodium chicken stock
2 teaspoons chopped fresh thyme (or 1 teaspoon dried thyme)
½ teaspoon fennel seeds, bashed up a little in a mortar and pestle
1 lemon, peel cut off in strips with a vegetable peeler, then juiced (keep separate)
Salt and freshly-ground black pepper
1 14-ounce can small white beans, rinsed and drained
Optional baguette with rouille
Rouille (garlic mayonnaise, see this recipe for homemade and doctored store-bought versions)
1 baguette, sliced and toasted
Combine the wine and chicken stock in a saucepan, bring to a boil, then reduce the so it’s still boiling and cook until the liquid is reduced to 4 cups (about 25 minutes). Add the drained tomatoes and the saffron, plus the dried thyme (hold off on the fresh thyme if you’re using it). Cover the pan and set it aside.
While the wine and stock are cooking, heat 2 tablespoons of oil in a Dutch oven, then add the chicken thigh pieces. Cook for about 4 minutes, then turn and cook the other side. You may have to do this in batches, depending on your pot. Remove the chicken with a slotted spoon and put it in a bowl. Add the remaining olive oil, heat it up, and add the onion and white slices of scallion, plus the fresh thyme (if using) and the fennel seed, and about ½ teaspoon each of salt and pepper. Cook until the onions just start to get a little brown on the edges (about 10 minutes, stirring often), then add the garlic and the lemon peel and cook for a minute. Add the wine/stock/tomato mixture, then the chicken. Heat until boiling, then reduce the heat, cover, and simmer for a half hour, until the chicken is cooked.
Remove the lid, then add the drained beans, scallion greens, and a tablespoon of lemon juice. Cook for a few minutes to heat the beans, then taste for salt, pepper, and lemon juice. Ladle into big bowls and drizzle each bowl with a little olive oil, serve with the baguette slices slathered with as much rouille as you like.
Fresh and Soft Cheeses
Fresh and soft cheeses love crisp whites, dry rosés, sparkling wines, dry aperitif wines, and light-bodied reds with low tannins. Wines with apple, berry, stone fruit, tropical, melon, or citrus flavors work best. Avoid big, tannic red wines like Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Bordeaux, and Bordeaux blends.
Cheeses: Ricotta, Mozzarella, Burrata, Chèvre, Feta, Halloumi, Brie, Camembert, Brillat-Savarin, Crottin, Bûcheron
Pair with: Riesling (dry to sweet), Gewürztraminer, Moscato, Champagne, Cava, Chablis, Chenin Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Grigio, Albariño, Grüner Veltliner, unoaked Chardonnay, Provençal rosé, Beaujolais, Lambrusco, White Port, Fino sherry
Semi-hard, Medium-aged Cheeses
These cheeses have a firmer texture and stronger flavors. They need medium-bodied whites, fruity reds, vintage sparkling wine, and aperitif wines that offer a balance between acidity, fruit, and tannin.
Cheeses: Havarti, Edam, Emmental, Gruyère, Jarlsberg, young Cheddar, Monterey Jack, Manchego, Tomme d'Alsace
Pair with: Chardonnay, white Burgundy, white Bordeaux, Pinot Blanc, Viognier, white Rhône blends, Riesling (off-dry), Gewürztraminer, Champagne, red Burgundy, Pinot Noir, Beaujolais, Dolcetto, Barbera, Zinfandel, Merlot, vintage Port, young Tawny Port, Amontillado sherry
Stinky cheeses call for light-bodied wines with demure aromatics that complement rather than compete.
Cheeses: Époisses, Taleggio, Morbier
Pair with: Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Sauternes, red Burgundy, Pinot Noir
Blue cheeses need wines with both oomph and sweetness to balance their bold flavors and usually very salty, savory body.
Cheeses: Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Cambozola, Bleu d'Auvergne
Pair with: red Port, Tawny Port, Sauternes, Oloroso sherry, Banyuls, Recioto, Tokaji
Harder cheeses love full-bodied whites and tannic reds. Their nuttiness also works with oxidative wines like sherry, and their saltiness makes them terrific with sweet wines.
Cheeses: Aged Cheddar, Cheshire, Comté, aged Gruyère, aged Gouda, Pecorino, Manchego, Asiago, Parmigiano Reggiano
Pair with: Aged white Burgundy or Bordeaux, white Rhône blends, sweet Riesling, Viognier, vintage Champagne, Vin Jaune, red Burgundy, red Bordeaux, Cabernet Sauvignon, Barolo, Barbaresco, Nebbiolo, Petite Sirah, California red blends, red Rhône blends, Zinfandel, red Port, Tawny Port, Madeira, Sauternes, Oloroso sherry.
One Wine to Rule Them All?
It's fun to open a range of bottles to sample with your cheese assortment, but if you must pour a single wine with a mixed plate of cheeses, try Riesling, especially off-dry. The wine is low in alcohol, but its acidity, sweetness, tropical fruits, and mineral backbone let it partner broadly. Alsatian Gewürztraminer is another great choice. It's dry with a delicate body, but its floral aromas will waft ethereally above the savory notes of all of the cheeses.
Sparkling wines, from dry to sweet, almost always work well, too. Their ample acidity and toasty, nutty flavors complement cheeses from fresh through aged. A mixed plate of cheeses is a great excuse to open another bottle of Champagne—as if you needed one.
Regular Price $11.98
ZCard Price $5.98
It is rumored that the inventor of the Stump Jump plough, which enabled a ploughshare to jump over tree roots, had poor eyesight and required regular tests to ensure he could still operate machinery. The design of this label is inspired by an optometrist's eyechart and serves as a makeshift sobriety test. If you can hold the bottle at arm's length and still read the front label, you can enjoy another glass. This 2012 Shiraz is ”generous and juicy McLaren Vale Shiraz, loaded with sweet fruits, blackberry, plum, raspberry, contrasted by complexing subtleties of spice, earth and game. Medium bodied but round, long flavored and beautifully balanced. The voluptuous and delicious nature of this wine will give immediate satisfaction, the savory nuances will ensure you remain interested and coming back for more.”
The 2013: “Wonderfully lifted nose brimming with fruit pastilles, a mixed bouquet of flowers and spicy, white pepper. The palate shows an ample volume of fruit weight. Opulent, but checked by the powdery line of tannins that grow through the length of the wine, taking firm charge towards the finish. All the while, a raft of flavors ebb and flow, more jubes and spice, met by hints of Autumn leaves and fresh soil which add complexity and interest. A fresh, lively and generous wine that would sit proudly beside some of its more expensive counterparts.” – Winery Notes
"From tending and growing grapes with no synthetic chemicals or pesticides to picking the fruits by hand, crushing them in a press powered by a stationary push bike, and fermenting the juice in wooden barrels, Collectif Anonyme’s wine is 100 percent handmade.
The crew fluctuates from three to about 20 people at different times of the year, including friends like Haida, a DIY artist who designed several of the bottles’ labels. Another Collectif member, Boris is a club promoter who also happens to be Austria’s reigning air guitar champion. Between them, the group now has a collection of around 13 different wines and hopes to produce about 14,000 bottles in total this year."
"Wines from France, Spain, and Italy have so much more variation than our wines do. The product you get from California or Washington is much more stable," says Pogue. "If it's dry, we water more. We know how to deal with it." Pogue argues that if a vineyard is irrigated, it simply isn't poised to be a terroir wine. "To really taste terroir, the grape needs to be growing some place where it could live without people," Pogue says. "If you manipulate too much by watering, your manipulation cancels out the natural terroir. [It's] the easiest thing in the world to destroy."
“The U.S. is the biggest market in the world for wine and will remain the biggest market up to 2018 by quite a margin,” says Humphrey Serjeantson, a senior analyst at the IWSR. “What we are seeing in the U.S. is that it is increasingly common for millennial consumers to drink wine with meals. But there is no doubt consumers in the U.S. are becoming more knowledgeable and educated about wine.”
There are many varietals and hybrid grapes being used to make wine in Virginia. For white, most of the varietals at this time are: Viognier, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Petit Manseng and some Sauvignon Blanc. Sparking wine is usually from Chardonnay, but can also be made from other varietals. Reds are usually from Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Tannat, Touriga Nationale, Bordeaux blends known as Meritage and, on a smaller scale, Sangiovese, Barbera, Nebbiolo, Malbec, Syrah, Pinot Noir, Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Hybrid grapes often used are Traminette, Vidal Blanc and Seyval Blanc for whites and Chambourcin for reds.
Wines run from dry to semi-sweet to sweet. Many offer a dry, fruity rose in the French style, faux Eiswein, a sweet dessert-style white wine, and some have started making port-styled sweet red dessert wines.
Blended varietals usually have names, as one cannot put the varietal names on the bottle due to legal regulations. There must be 75% of a varietal in the bottle to put that grape's name on the label. A delicious example of this is Cardinal Point's "A6," a blend of Chardonnay and Viognier, named for the highway in France that separates the Chardonnay and Viognier growing regions, or Mountfair's "Inaugural," a Cabernet Franc-based Bordeaux blend, one of their first releases.
Rappahannock Cellars Viognier 2009: $22.50 (www.rappahannockcellars.com) Served by the glass at The Inn. I love the fresh pear and peach notes of this wine. It is aged in neutral oak barrels, so no big toasty vanilla aromas are apparent, just some richer spice tones to balance the crisp finish. Lovely with softer, more nutty cow's milk cheeses and a perfect aperitif or first course option.
The Winery at La Grange Viognier 2008: $22 (www.wineryatlagrange.com) Fermented in stainless steel and aged in big, old Hungarian oak barrels, this is made in a very classic old-world style. Reminiscent of the heralded Condrieu spoken of before, honeysuckle and Meyer lemon are the first aromas to lift from the glass. The flavors seem more springlike pear blossom and slightly spicy with a crisp white nectarine finish that pairs with soft goat cheese, especially those from Everona Dairy in Rapidan, Virginia.
Cabernet Franc is well known among aficionados of Virginia wine, and for a good reason. As one of the parents of the more famous Cabernet Sauvignon (Sauvignon Blanc is the other!), Cabernet Franc is better suited to the climate here and therefore thrives when treated correctly. Not meant to exude sweet, jammy, black fruit flavors or to shoulder the weight of high sugar levels, the resulting wines seem to show a better balance of acidity and tannin, which translates into a more deft pairing for dinner.
Pearmund Cellars Cabernet Franc 2009: $19 (www.pearmundcellars.com) This was the first Virginia red wine I had tried in Virginia and I was sure that there was a truck parked out back full of Cabernet Franc from the Loire Valley of France. Being one of my favorite wines, the recognition of the aromas and flavors of Cabernet Franc was immediate and I was dumbfounded by how familiar they seemed. Bursting with crushed violets and dried purple rose, the fruit is secondary to the wonderful herbs that spring forth from the glass. More for the lovers of Pinot Noir than California Cabernet, so it pairs better with richer seafood and sheep's milk cheeses.
Chester Gap Cabernet Franc 2008: $22 (www.chestergapcellars.com) 2008 was an excellent vintage for reds and this Cabernet Franc exhibits much more richness in both flavor and aroma. Wild raspberries and dried black cherries dominate, with a background note of freshly brewed coffee and baking spice. A wonderful choice for lovers of grilled meats as well as blue cheeses such as Mountain Top Bleu from FireFly Farms from Maryland's Allegheny Plateau.
Petit Verdot is gaining ground on Cabernet Franc with winemakers and the examples I have tasted prove they're on the right track. Originally a blending grape in the Bordeaux region of France, it is known to add floral notes and red fruit components to the bigger-bodied varieties it accompanies. Like Cabernet Franc, which also plays a role in Bordeaux, it can produce a variety of styles, depending on the winemaker and vintage.
Michael Shaps Petit Verdot 2008: $32 (www.michaelshapswines.com) With only 100 cases to go around, it is well worth your while to seek out this bottle. Although it has a fuller body weight, it is still heady with floral aromas of fresh rose petal and freshly picked black plums. For the lover of more restrained styles of Cabernet Sauvignon I believe this would hit the mark dead on, but it is still balanced enough to drink on its lonesome or partnered up with more pungent hard cheeses or dark chocolate-covered dried cherries.
King Family Vineyards Petit Verdot 2008: $34.95 (www.kingfamilyvineyards.com) Aged 20 months in French oak barrels, this is definitely a luxurious style of red wine. If you're looking for an elegant Argentinian Malbec or Chilean Cabernet, this is a wonderful alternative that has a lingering finish of vanilla-scented black cherries and freshly crushed raspberries. There is a hint of spice on the finish as well, but more cinnamon baking spice than pepper, and a touch of cedar as well. A great match with higher-cacao chocolates and more pungent soft cheeses, like Grayson from Meadow Creek Dairy in Galax, Virginia.
Dessert wines are somewhat ubiquitous when it comes to Valentine's Day because they are the perfect partner for chocolates and other sweets for our sweethearts. Virginia produces some extraordinary late-harvest wines, however these are a few that I believe stand out from the rest.
King Family Vineyards "Lorely" 2008: $24.95 (375 ml) Not everyone is smitten with chocolate and for those more inclined toward fruits this Valentine's, this blend of 50% Viognier and 50% Petit Manseng balances candied fruit with lemon rind acidity for a perfect accompaniment to all things cocoa-free. Taken from the centuries-old Vin de Paille or "straw wine" style of late-harvest wines, the grapes are dried, pressed and then fermented in new oak barrels, producing a melange of flavors, including orange blossom, candied Clementine peel, sultana raisin and dried peaches.
Michael Shaps "Raisin d'Etre" 2008: $25 (375 ml) Made in the Ripasso style, the Italian take on Vin de Paille, a blend of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot grapes are dried for two months and yield a single barrel of liquid delight. All the aromas of port are here: black plum, black licorice, dried violets and more, but with an alcohol level equal to most table wines on the opposite coast. Stunning with dark or milk chocolate and perfect with almost any cheese, it gives you all the bang without the burn.
King Family "7" 2008: $29.95 (500 ml) LADIES ALERT! Does your man love cigars? Or bourbon? Or ANY whiskey? Then you ABSOLUTELY cannot pass this one up! By law, bourbon can be aged solely in brand-new, heavily charred American oak barrels. So, unlike most wineries and distilleries that will use their barrels for years to come, these barrels must be repurposed immediately after their first usage. Their loss is your gain because this wine is made in a classic Port style from 100% Merlot and aged in those one-year-old Kentucky bourbon barrels, which add a slew of rich, dense aromas and flavors to this wine. Blueberry jam, cedar, cocoa powder and coffee just skim the surface of the delights that await once it has been open for a bit. It is also a knock-out pairing with full-flavored blue cheeses and almost any chocolate-covered fruit you throw at it!
Giacomo Conterno, Giuseppe Mascarello, Vouvray
There are four major types of Madeira wine, each named according to the varietal used. These include Malvasia (or Malmsey), Boal (or Bual), Verdelho, and Sercial. Others varietals exist, but due to the island’s climate conditions, fungal grape diseases are fairly common, and because of this, other varietals have become scarce.
Boal (or Bual) and Malvasia (or Malmsey), sweeter forms of Madeira, are often fermented with their skins, in order to extract phenols (which carry acids and tannin) which help to balance the sweetness of the wine. The drier wines, such as the Verdelho and Sercial varietals, are fermented separate of their skins.
* Depending on the level of sweetness desired, fermentation of the wine is halted at some point by the addition of neutral grape spirits. The wine is then subject to Estafugem, the aging and heating process unique to Madeira wines. The result of the Estafugem is the trademark, heavy-caramelized flavour of Madeira, similar to many whiskeys.
Savannah Verdelho: elegant, gently spicy wine with a pronounced nuttiness, rose petal note
New York Malmsey: bursting with fig and toffee flavors
Email Blast Canyon Oaks Moscato
California, 750ml, $5.99
Crowd pleasing, sweetly styled and wonderful with desserts.
Chile, 750ml, $7.99
Carmenere is the new signature wine of Chile, distinctive for its velvety, spicy character.
Spier Chenin Blanc
South Africa, 750ml, $7.99
If you like Vouvray try South Africa's refreshing version.
Nostrada Tempranillo Tarragona
Spain, 750ml, $7.99
Amazing value in a crowd-pleasing red from Spain.
Oak Grove Viognier
California, 750ml, $8.99
Tired of California Chardonnay? Then try Viognier! This fantastic value is sure to please.
Winzer Krems Gruner Veltliner Ried
Austria, 750ml, $9.99
The dry white wine choice of sommeliers and savvy wine consumers.
2010 Signature Chappellet Cabernet Sauvignon, Napa Valley (Kristen’s birthday, Texas de Brazil)
2009 Chrysalis Vineyards Petit Verdot - Hollin Reserve (tasting, then Cape Hatteras lunch)
2011 Chrysalis Vineyards Rubiana (tasting)
People were fermenting grapes and storing wine in massive jugs as long ago as 6000 B.C., according to a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The new research pushes chemical evidence of wine 600 to 1,000 years before the previous oldest estimates.
“This is a big time jump,” said Patrick McGovern, an expert in ancient wines at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an author of the new study. McGovern and his colleagues analyzed pottery jars found in the Eurasian country of Georgia that dated to the early Neolithic period.
Ancient Georgians could have stored 300 liters of wine in the jars, which are about three feet tall. Small clay bumps are clustered around the rim. These decorations, the researchers hypothesize, represent grapes.
Published: 00:12 BST, 7 August 2016 | Updated: 03:47 BST, 7 August 2016
They shirk responsibility, sulk and throw their toys out of the pram if they don’t get their own way. Anna Moore charts the rise of the ‘kidult’ men who refuse to grow up, and asks what you can do if you’re married to one
The cracks in Lucy and James’s marriage appeared almost as soon as she brought home their baby.
‘Until our son was born, we’d kept life James’s way,’ says Lucy, 32. ‘I didn’t have anyone else to look after – so I basically looked after James.’
Both had careers – Lucy in design, James in property. Lucy had learnt how to keep life ticking along smoothly. Their flat was never messy (Lucy tidied up after both of them) and their fridge never short of his favourite beer.
If James wanted to stay up late playing computer games or drinking with his friends, that was no problem. And if he slept in late at weekends, Lucy was more than happy to quietly occupy herself.
‘All that changed with parenthood,’ says Lucy. ‘I was preoccupied, tired and also utterly in love with our son. The flat became messy – because I wasn’t cleaning up – and the beer ran out while I was at the hospital. When I arrived home with our new baby, there was no food in the house, let alone anything to drink.’
Although Lucy was delighted with parenthood, James struggled. ‘He seemed to resent every sacrifice, every adjustment,’ she says. ‘He sulked for days when we had to get rid of our old car – a coupé that was completely impractical. Each day brought either a row, a tantrum or some kind of sulk, and by the time our son was six months old we were barely communicating. All the qualities I’d loved in James – his boyishness, his free spirit – I now despised. What once was fun and endearing now seemed like proof he was emotionally stunted, incapable of growing up and assuming the paternal role.’
We hear a lot about the rise of the ‘adultescent’ or ‘kidult’, the generation that refuses to grow up.
Is he an overgrown baby?
Typical signs that he is emotionally stunted
He never puts your needs first… unless it suits him to.
He plays the victim. He blames his problems on others and rarely looks inward. It’s never his fault it’s yours, his boss’s, the other driver’s, all part of a giant global conspiracy against him.
He is always looking for the next high. Whether it’s a fast car, line of cocaine or an extreme sport.
He is irresponsible and lacks self-control. This may show up in debt, an unrealistic career path, temper tantrums, binge drinking or inappropriate behaviour at family gatherings.
He is highly sensitive to things done to him , but blind to anything he does to others. You have to accept him for who he is but he won’t accept you for who you are.
He doesn’t see things through. You know how children are enthused by an idea and then lose interest? An adult persists with a project even when it’s no longer new, delaying gratification for the bigger picture.
He avoids confrontation. An overgrown child dislikes being ‘ticked off’ (as they see it) and will do anything to sidestep it – even leaving the house and slamming the door.
He’s unfaithful. His constant need for approval means that if the current relationship has moved past the lust stage, he may look elsewhere.
It has been linked to all sorts of factors that have conspired to allow fully grown adults to evade responsibility: helicopter parenting the rocketing cost of education and housing extended career internships and the trend towards later marriages.
At the same time, an industry has sprung up to celebrate the kidult, whether that’s adult video games, cartoons or TV programmes such as Top Gear (both Jeremy Clarkson, 56, and Chris Evans, 50, are known for their love of speed, boys’ toys and gadgets, as well as their professional meltdowns and fondness for wanting things ‘their way’. Each departed the show under a cloud).
An extensive study commissioned by the children’s TV channel Nickelodeon UK found that men reach maturity 11 years later than women do: women felt they were fully mature at 32, men at 43. In fact, men were twice as likely to describe themselves as ‘immature’. Almost half of the women questioned said they’d been in a relationship where they’d had to ‘mother’ their partner, while one in three had ended a relationship because of it.
The recent breakdown of Johnny Depp’s marriage to Amber Heard gave a brief glimpse into life with a man who has never had to grow up. The clues were already there: Johnny’s preference for playing wild, fantastical characters in children’s films (Jack Sparrow, Willy Wonka, Mad Hatter) his struggles with alcohol, substance abuse and what he has called his ‘hillbilly rage’ the rock band, Hollywood Vampires, he formed last year (aged 52) Amber’s bruised face. None of it quite adds up to a picture of a fully fledged adult.
But the leaked alleged text exchange between Amber and Johnny’s assistant Stephen Deuters suggests Johnny has been able to do what he likes, have his way and behave like a child for years – with a team on hand to help smooth his path. Stephen apparently negotiates, apologises and begs when it comes to his boss’s alleged bad behaviour.
Amber writes, ‘He’s done this many times before. Tokyo, the island, London (remember that?!), and I always stay. Always believe he’s going to get better. And then every 3 or so month [sic], I’m in the exact same position.’ Stephen writes, ‘He was appalled. When I told him he kicked you, he cried….He’s a little lost boy. And needs all the help he can get…’
A ‘little lost boy’. But what does it mean to be married to someone who has failed to grow up? He may hold down a job, own a house, have all the trappings of a responsible adult – but below the surface, emotionally, he’s still a child. So how can you recognise the signs?
‘The big test of maturity is whether your partner can tolerate frustration,’ says psychotherapist Wendy Bristow. ‘What is he like when things don’t go his way?’
In theory, it’s something we should learn as children. ‘Toddlers are famous for having tantrums,’ says Bristow. ‘Very young children tend to be self-centred and self-absorbed. They demand special treatment and have yet to develop empathy for others. Even if you haven’t managed to grow out of that stage by two years old, there are plenty more chances during childhood.’
Parenting is critical. ‘If parents helicopter in and sort things out whenever the tiniest frown appears on your face, you’ll be less practised in coping with life’s frustrations and managing your emotions,’ says Bristow.
‘If you never learn to master them, you may be fun and a breath of fresh air when all goes well, but when it doesn’t, you may fall back on tantrums, sulks, drinking, reckless destruction, manipulation – and it’s always, always someone else’s fault.’
Relationships tend to bring all this to the surface. If you’re single, you can glide through life on your own terms, fulfilling your own needs, in control of your own time. You’ll probably appear utterly charming. When you’re married, however, you have someone else to consider.
‘If you’re emotionally stunted, you cannot perceive that others have minds of their own that can think and feel differently from yours,’ says psychologist and specialist in emotional literacy Dr Betty Rudd.
‘You can be judgmental, self-absorbed, controlling, selfish and defensive. You’re like the very young, who become distressed if their gratification is delayed irrespective of the reason. This can ruin relationships – and it is also potentially very dangerous.’
Sometimes, the relationship survives because the partner effectively becomes the parent, as Lucy did with Jim. ‘You’re the person who spots the signs, calms him down, distracts him,’ says Bristow.
But once children enter the picture, this becomes harder to maintain. ‘Having a child is a huge test of anyone’s maturity,’ says Bristow. ‘I see so many women who’ve had a baby and their relationship has gone to pot. They may have managed very well when it was just the two of them, but with a baby they’re no longer able to give their partner their full attention the frustrations pile up and things go downhill. Partners may evade responsibility by going out all hours and living like teenagers, or be incredibly bad tempered or depressed.’
Mumsnet – the popular parenting site – is one place where frustrated partners allow themselves to vent. ‘My boyfriend is a great dad, has a heart of gold, is great fun and loves me, but I am slowly being driven mad by him,’ writes one.
‘He sulks if he doesn’t think I’m giving him enough love and attention he sulks if I take the mickey out of him (although he is allowed to take the mickey out of me) he sulks if he feels put-upon to do any chores…and sulks if I have an opinion on something which might be different from his, and then voice it.’
Another thread called ‘My Husband’s Sulking is Getting Me Down’ begins, ‘My husband and I had a bit of a disagreement over our son’s bedtime last night and because I didn’t say exactly what he wanted. he has gone into a massive sulk…We have already had a major fall-out over his aggressive nature. This week he stamped on my children’s pushchair because it wouldn’t fold down easily, leaving the children crying…’
So what can you do if you find yourself married to an overgrown child? Is it possible that your partner will change? The answer is yes. ‘Maturity can speed up at any time of life,’ says Bristow. ‘We’ve all heard people say how certain major events – maybe losing a parent, or the end of a marriage – made them grow up fast.’
The bad news is that no one else can make it happen or do it for you. ‘You can’t change your partner you can only change your role in the relationship,’ advises Bristow. Don’t be his mum – be his model.
‘If he’s having a tantrum, deny the payoff by walking away. Don’t engage with it. If you’ve always given in before or raged back at him, or distracted him and “managed him”, you’ll certainly feel a pull to do that, and you may even feel guilty, but hold yourself firm.’
If you’re the person who needs to do the growing up, therapy can be a helpful option. ‘However, a good place to start is to be aware of it,’ says Bristow. ‘Once you’re aware of how you feel, how you act, then you’ve got the potential to change it. We all have to learn ways to contain our difficult emotions. If you shout at your partner whenever you feel angry, why don’t you change your behaviour and go for a run instead? Anger is a very physical emotion.’
Of course, these are lessons best learned in childhood. For parents keen to nurture emotional literacy in children, Dr Rudd has devised board games such as Rainbow and her EQ card game which encourage children to voice and understand their feelings and those of others.
Sadly, in some instances, you may opt to walk away from your ‘little lost boy’, as Amber Heard has and as Lucy did, too. She now raises their five-year-old son alone. Jim still plays his part – in his own way, on his own terms.
‘He pays maintenance intermittently and he turns up when it suits him – but not if he has a party to go to or if he’s tired or under the weather,’ says Lucy. ‘Our son loves his daddy because he takes him to theme parks, or on helicopter rides. When they’re together, Jim gets to act like the kid again. I’m still waiting for the day when he decides to be the grown-up.’
Flowering Week by Week with Pictures
Week 1 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100% (600watt HPS)
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 77ºF / 64.4ºF (25ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 70%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.2
By reducing the light duration from 18 to 12 hours, the plant ‘thinks’ the fall season is coming and begins to flower. It’ll take a couple of weeks before the first flowers become visible, and until that time the marijuana plant continues to grow nicely. Therefore the demand of nitrogen remains high. Make sure your swivel fan is aimed between the lamp and the plant. This way the hot air under the lamp is spreaded across the grow room, and you won’t damage the plants too much with strong winds. Also make sure that the bottom of the leaves are not getting damaged, or discolor due to insects or a shortage of nutrients, and watch out that the tips of the leaves do not ‘burn’ (become brown). This may indicate an overdose of nutrients.
Week 2 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 78.1ºF / 64.4ºF (26ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 70%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.3
Don’t prune the marijuana plant anymore. Pinching out is fine, which means removing the side shoots on the bottom, so the plant mainly uses its energy to create thick buds. Now they’re growing really fast, so you’ll need to monitor the distance between the plant and the lamp every day and adjust if necessary. If the upper leave begins to curl or discolor it is too warm, and the extractor fan needs to be at a higher setting, and the distance between lamp and plant needs to be greater. Increase the EC every week by 0.1, and you can see how your plants react to it. When you make sure that all the things mentioned above are done correctly you should have healthy green plants with thick stems and large leaves by now that can carry the weights of many heavy buds.
Week 3 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 78.1ºF / 64.4ºF (26ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 60%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.4
At this stage the root system of the marijuana plant has grown a lot and should come from underneath the pot. The first flowers has become visible, and the plant should continue to grow nicely. They consume the maximum amount of water now, so be sure that it’ll never be without it and the soil is always a bit damp. Feel it with your hand halfway in the pot and lift it up to check the moisture level. If you grow from regular seed you need to remove the males now before they fertilize the females and endanger the quality of the weed. Finish this week with a good rinse. Do not add fertilizer to the water, but do keep the pH at 6.
Week 4 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 80.6ºF / 64.4ºF (27ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 50%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.5
You’ll notice small buds everywhere, and the plant begins to smell really good. The Phosphorus (P) demand increases, so switch to a good bloom fertilizer such as bud booster. You should’ve rinsed it well last week without any fertilizer. This is to decrease the fertilizer with a high amount of nitrogen in the soil and plant, so the plant can absorb a good amount of phosphorus, and the small buds can quickly develop.
Week 5 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 80.6ºF / 64.4ºF (27ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 50%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.6
The marijuana plant will no longer continue to grow and will only focus on the production of buds. Make sure that there’s an optimal distance between the plant and the lamp, provide as much light as possible but don’t let it get too hot. The buds are even more sensitive to heat than the leaves. Insert a plant stick under a lamp and attach a thermometer to it to see how warm it really gets. Continue to feed them and pay extra attention to any damage to the leaves caused by insects or fertilizing problems. Also red stems are a sign of stress and may indicate certain problems.
Week 6 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 80.6ºF / 64.4ºF (27ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 50%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.7
The buds continue to develop, and the plant will consume the maximum amount of water and CO2. Make sure your fans stay on in order to provide the marijuana plants with fresh air. Also check to see that your plants are not drying out. This phase always takes long, and it doesn’t look like a lot of things are happening. The challenge is to optimally maintain the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and ventilation. Rinse your plants again at the end of the week with water not containing fertilizer, but do maintain a pH level of 6. This will help to stabilize the EC and pH levels of the plant and the soil again.
Week 7 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 82.4ºF / 64.4ºF (28ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 40%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.8
Your buds are now really starting to get some volume. The plant still needs nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutritious elements, but its most important requirement is now potassium. Use a product like THC booster to provide the plant with optimal nutrition. You will notice that slowly but surely there will be a somewhat of a white deposit on the small leaves around the buds. That’s is THC. The whiter the better. So feed your plant optimally. You will see that the first hairs will color orange.
Week 8 Flowering
- Light Quantity – 100%
- Light distance – 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration – 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night – 82.4ºF / 64.4ºF (28ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level – 40%
- pH level – 6.0
- EC – 1.8
Now your buds go through their final growth spurt, but will primarily focus on compactness and THC production. It may happen that the lower leaves begin to turn yellow and slowly die, but that’s normal. It is not a nutrient deficiency, so keep feeding them. Check the buds every day for any mold or yellow/brown leaves. Immediately clip any suspicious things or upload your picture to our support page, you’ll get an answer to your question in no time.
Week 9 Flowering
- Light Quantity 100%
- Light distance 1.6 ft (50cm)
- Light Duration 12 hours
- Temperature Day / Night 82.4ºF / 64.4ºF (28ºC/18ºC)
- Humidity level 40%
- pH level 6.0
- EC 1.0
In order to get rid of all the nutrients in your marijuana plants you can significantly reduce the EC level. During the final one or two treatment(s), only give them water with a pH level of 6.0. This also rinses the soil which then you can use again for your next harvest. Keep all factors under control and check for rot or insects. Discoloration of the leaves is normal and slowly the hairs on the buds are also turning brown. If you think your plants are still using the maximum amount of water, and 80% of the hairs aren’t brown yet, you can let them sit for awhile longer. It is also a matter of taste.
In this marijuana grow schedule I placed 1 plant per square foot so I can always weed out any sick or infected plants that are not growing properly. Another advantage of growing one plant per square foot is that you don’t have to vegetate them for weeks.